Tag: wastewater treatment

wastewater treatment

  • Cadmium Analyzer | Carl Zeller

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    Cadmium Analyzer Carl Zeller Overview

    The Cadmium Analyzer Carl Zeller can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals, such as Cadmium (Cd), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Cadmium Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Cadmium compounds belong to the most hazardous pollutants in the environment.
    Industry. Cadmium metal is used in the steel industry and in plastics. Cadmium compounds are widely used in batteries.
    Drinking water. Contamination in drinking water may also be caused by impurities in the zinc of galvanized pipes and solders and some metal fittings. A guideline value of 0.005 mg/liter was recommended for cadmium in drinking- water.
    Toxicity. Cadmium is toxic to a wide range of organs. Primary targets are the kidneys, bone, and the lung.

    Method
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling.
    • High accuracy and precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration.

    Datasheet

  • Calcium and Magnesium Analyser | Antojn Bruckner

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    Calcium and Magnesium Analyser - Antojn Bruckner Overview

    The Calcium and Magnesium Analyser - Antojn Bruckner can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals,  Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Calcium and Magnesium Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    To prevent membrane poisoning, new membrane technology in Chlor-alkali cells requires feed brine that is relatively free of alkaline earth metals. Membrane manufacturers recommend that saturated brines be purified to a total hardness below 50 µg/L (ppb) to extend membrane life and ensure electrical current efficiency in the cell. Industrial laboratories have been concerned with the determination of calcium and magnesium in brine for a number of years.

    Method
    Calcium and Magnesium are measured in sum and separate by the HNB/EDTA volumetric method. The SEIBOLD titrator Johann N. Hummel is an online titration unit for equilibrium and endpoint detection. By defining the concentration of the titrator the resolution can be adjusted to specific needs and measurement ranges. The titration works in flow-through mode and can work real continuously. The consumption of chemical solutions could be minimized because of using SEIBOLD's unique measurement chain memory.

    Calcium and Magnesium Analyser Features

    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling and long-living.
    • Highest accuracy of measurement and high precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration and dilution.
    • Can perform complex control tasks via analog and digital communication.
  • Copper Analyzer | Johann H. Schmelzer

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    Copper Analyzer Johann H. Schmelzer Overview

    The Copper Analyzer Johann H. Schmelzer can perform continuous analysis of metals, such as Copper (Cu), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Copper Analyzer Johann H. Schmelzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Copper is both an essential nutrient and a drinking-water contaminant
    Natural sources. Most of the world’s Cu is found and mined in the form of copper sulfides and in combination with other metals that can also form multi-metal- sulfide minerals (Fe, Sn, Pb, Se, As, Sb and Ag).
    Industry. Copper is used for in gelectroplating and semiconducting industry,…
    Natural water. Copper is found in natural surface waters at an average concentration of 0.002 mg/L, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 mg/L, Cu in seawater is at the upper end of the range.
    Drinking water. Copper concentrations in drinking water vary widely, with the primary source most often being the corrosion of interior copper plumbing. A guideline value of 1.5 mg/liter was recommended for copper in drinking- water.
    Toxicity. Copper is not very toxic to animals and humans but can be toxic to some fish, many invertebrates and microbes, particularly fungi, algae, and bacteria.

    Method
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Copper Analyzer Features

    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling.
    • High accuracy and precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration

    Datasheet

  • Copper and Nickel Analyzer | Alban Berg

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    Copper and Nickel Analyzer Alban Berg Overview

    The Copper and Nickel Analyzer Alban Berg can perform continuous analysis of metals, such as Copper (Co) and Nickel (Ni), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Copper and Nickel Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal. This process analyzer was developed and built for the industrial wastewater and drinking water Industry. The main advantages are the combined measurement in one measurement step and the use of non-toxic and non-hazardous reagents.

    Sources
    Industry. Nickel and Copper are used in alloys (stainless steel), electroplating, foundries, catalysts, welding rods, and coinage, and can be found in electronic equipment, construction materials, aerospace equipment, and consumer goods such as batteries, paints, and ceramics.
    Drinking water. Copper concentrations in drinking water vary widely, with the primary source most often being the corrosion of interior copper plumbing. A guideline value of 1.5 mg/liter was recommended for copper in drinking water.
    Toxicity. Inhaled nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and that metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent effect of nickel in the general population.

    Method
    The Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout measurement chamber containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Copper and Nickel Analyzer Features

    • Non-dangerous chemistry and reagents
    • Robust design
    • Minimal maintenance
    • Easy handling
    • High accuracy and precision
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications
    • Automated cleaning and calibration

    Datasheet

  • Cyanide Analyzer | Matthias G. Monn

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    Cyanide Analyzer Matthias G. Monn Overview

    The Cyanide Analyzer Matthias G. Monn can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals, Cyanide (CN-), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation, direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Cyanide Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Any chemical compound containing the cyano- group -C=N with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom is a cyanide. The cyano-group can be found in various kinds of gaseous, liquid and solid compounds. Cyanide is introduced into organic molecules by displacement of the corresponding organic halide during industrial processes. Typical fields of business encountering cyanide are the steel industry, gold and silver mining, production of tints and varnish, synthetic resins, synthetic fibres, electroplating, coal and crude oil production.

    Toxicology
    For cyanide the guideline value for chemicals that are of health significance in drinking water according to World Health Organization (WHO) is 0.07 mg/liter as total cyanogenic compounds. Similar to hydrocyanic acid, cyanides are extremely toxic as a consequence of being able, even with very weak acids (e.g. water), to protonate and build hydrogen cyanide (HCN).

    Method
    Cyanide is measured as chelate complex between CN- ions in the water and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed complex is directly proportional to Cyanide concentration.

    Cyanide Analyzer Features

    • Robust Design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling.
    • High accuracy and precision.
    • Suitable for mission critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration.
  • Iron Analyzer | Joseph von Eybler

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    Iron Analyzer - Joseph von Eybler Overview

    The Iron Analyzer - Joseph von Eybler can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals, such as Iron (Fe), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Iron Analyzer Joseph von Eybler guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Natural sources. Iron is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth’s crust. It is found in natural freshwaters at levels ranging from 0.5 to 50 mg/liter. Industry. Iron is used for various alloys, steel, in the galvanization process and other industrial processes.
    Drinking water. Iron may be present in drinking water as a result of the use of iron coagulants or the corrosion of steel and cast iron pipes during water distribution. There is usually no noticeable taste at iron concentrations below 0.3 mg/liter, and concentrations of 1–3 mg/liter can be acceptable for people drinking anaerobic well water.
    Toxicity. Iron is an essential element in human nutrition. Estimates of the minimum daily requirement for iron depend on age, sex, physiological status, and iron bioavailability and range from about 10 to 50mg/day. Portable water should contain iron, not more than 0.2 mg/L. Groundwater may contain iron at concentrations of several milligrams per liter.

    Method 
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Iron Analyzer Joseph von Eybler Features

    • Non-toxic chemistry !!!
    • Robust design
    • Minimal maintenance
    • Easy handling
    • High accuracy and precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications
    • Automated cleaning and calibration

    Datasheet

  • Iron and Manganese Analyzer | Joseph Lanner

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    Iron and Manganese Analyzer - Joseph Lanner Overview

    The Iron and Manganese Analyzer - Joseph Lanner can perform continuous analysis of metals, such as Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Iron and Manganese Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal. This process analyzer was developed and built for the industrial wastewater and drinking water Industry. The main advantages are the combined measurement in one measurement step and the use of non-toxic and non-hazardous reagents.

    Sources
    Drinking water. Iron may be present in drinking water as a result of the use of iron coagulants or the corrosion of steel and cast iron pipes during water distribution. There is usually no noticeable taste at iron concentrations below 0.3 mg/liter, and concentrations of 1–3 mg/liter can be acceptable for people drinking anaerobic well water. Manganese is naturally occurring in many surface water and groundwater sources, particularly in anaerobic or low oxidation conditions. A provisional health-based guideline value of 0.5 mg/liter should be adequate to protect public health.
    Toxicity. Iron is an essential element in human nutrition. Portable water should contain iron, not more than 0.2 mg/L. Groundwater may contain iron at concentrations of several milligrams per liter.

    Method
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout the measurement chamber containing the formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Iron and Manganese Analyzer - Joseph Lanner Features

    • Nontoxic chemistry.
    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling.
    • High accuracy and precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration.

    Datasheet

  • Lead Analyzer | Georg Furxer

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    Lead Analyzer - Georg Furxer Overview 

    The Lead Analyzer - Georg Furxer can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals, such as Lead (Pb), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Lead Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Natural sources
    . Inorganic lead rarely exists in its elemental state but is found in the environment in various complexes. Industry. Lead is used principally in the production of lead-acid batteries, solder, and alloys; the organolead compounds used extensively as antiknock and lubricating agents in petrol.
    Drinking water. Lead is rarely present in tap water as a result of its dissolution from natural sources; from household plumbing systems. Concentrations in drinking water are generally below 5 mg/liter. The guideline value for lead is 0.01 mg/L.
    Toxicity. Lead is a general toxicant that accumulates in the skeleton. Lead is toxic to both the central and peripheral nervous systems, inducing sub-acute encephalopathic neurological and behavioral effects.

    Method
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Lead Analyzer - Features 

    • Robust Design
    • Minimal maintenance
    • Easy handling
    • High accuracy and precision
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications
    • Automated cleaning and calibration.

    Datasheet

  • Manganese Analyzer | Georg C. Wagenseil

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    Manganese Analyzer Georg C. Wagenseil Overview

    The Manganese Analyzer Georg C. Wagenseil can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals, such as Manganese (Mn), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Manganese Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Natural sources. Manganese is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth’s crust, usually occurring with iron.
    Industry. Manganese is used principally in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys, as an oxidant for cleaning, bleaching, and disinfection as potassium permanganate, and as an ingredient in various products. More recently, it has been used in an organic compound, MMT.
    Drinking water. Manganese is naturally occurring in many surface water and groundwater sources, particularly in anaerobic or low oxidation conditions. A provisional health-based guideline value of 0.5 mg/liter should be adequate to protect public health.
    Toxicity. Manganese is an essential element for humans and other animals. Adverse effects can result from both deficiency and overexposure. Manganese is known to cause neurological effects following inhalation exposure.

    Method
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Manganese Analyzer Features

    • Non-toxic chemistry.
    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling
    • High accuracy and suitable for mission-critical
    • Automated cleaning and calibration

    Datasheet

  • Nickel Analyzer | Johann J. Fux

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    Nickel Analyzer  - Johann J. Fux Overview

    The Nickel Analyzer Johann J. Fux can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals, such as Nickel (Ni), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Nickel Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    Natural sources. The element nickel is found at low levels of 0.0099% in the earth’s crust and exists mainly in the form of sulfide, oxide, and silicate minerals.
    Industry. Nickel is used in alloys (stainless steel), electroplating, foundries, catalysts, welding rods, and coinage, and can be found in electronic equipment, construction materials, aerospace equipment, and consumer goods such as batteries, paints, and ceramics.
    Drinking water. Sources of nickel in ambient waters include physical and chemical degradation of rocks and soils, deposition of atmospheric nickel-containing particulate matter, and discharges from industrial processes. A health-based guideline value of Nickel is 0.02 mg/liter.
    Toxicity. Inhaled nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and that metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most prevalent effect of nickel in the general population.

    Method
    Metal is measured as a chelate complex between metal ions in the wastewater and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to metal concentration.

    Nickel Analyzer Features

    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling.
    • High accuracy and precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration.

    Datasheet

  • Online Nitrate Sensor | Nitro::lyser VS3

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    Online Nitrate Sensor Nitro::lyser VS3 Overview

    The Online Nitrate Sensor Nitro::lyser VS3 is ideal for the measurement of nitrate concentrations and turbidity/solids concentrations too. The nitrate concentration displayed is not sensitive to cross-influences from other substance groups such as organic carbon or total solids. Applications range from (ultra) pure water in the μg/l range up to industrial wastewater in the g/l range.

    Nitro::lyser VS3 Features

    • Nitro::lyser™ II monitors 2 of the following parameters: Turbidity, TSS, TS, NO3-N and NO3
    • Measuring principle: UV-Vis spectrometry over the total range (190-750 nm)
    • Webserver onboard - IoT enabled, no user software is needed to configure the probe
    • Communicates directly with your mobile device via WLAN
    • Choose exactly the parameters you want to measure – unlimited number of parameters possible
    • 8 GB onboard memory - capacity for logging data for many years
    • Improved optical performance - revolutionary precision
    • Fast measurement interval - every 10 seconds
    • Extremely power-efficient - sleep mode for low energy consumption
    • Multiparameter probe with 1 mm, 5 mm, or 35 mm optical path length, ideal for wastewater, surface water, and drinking water
    • Long term stable and maintenance-free in operation
    • Factory precalibrated, local multi-point calibration possible
    • Automatic cleaning with compressed air or brush/ruck::sack

    Drinkwater & Surface water Datasheet
    Wastewater Datasheet

  • Online Ozone Sensor | Ozo::lyser V3

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    Online Ozone Sensor Ozo::lyser V3 Overview

    The measurement of ozone in water is what the online ozone sensor ozo::lyser V3 is optimized for. This member of the spectrometer family is optimized to determine concentrations of ozone dissolved in water online. It offers an attractive alternative to classical electrochemical ozone sensors, thanks to its very low maintenance requirement and extreme stability.

    Online Ozone Sensor Ozo::lyser V3 Features

    • ozo::lyser II monitors 2 of the following parameters: TSS, turbidity & ozone
    • Measuring principle: UV-Vis spectrometry over the total range (190-750 nm)
    • Web server onboard - IoT enabled, no user software is needed to configure the probe
    • Communicates directly with your mobile device via WLAN
    • Choose exactly the parameters you want to measure – unlimited number of parameters possible
    • 8 GB onboard memory - capacity for logging data for many years
    • Improved optical performance - revolutionary precision
    • Fast measurement interval - every 10 seconds
    • Extremely power efficient - sleep mode for low energy consumption
    • Multiparameter probe with 1 mm, 5 mm, or 35 mm optical path length, ideal for wastewater, surface water, and drinking water
    • Long term stable and maintenance-free in operation
    • Factory precalibrated, local multi-point calibration possible
    • Automatic cleaning with compressed air or brush/ruck::sack

    Drinking-Water Datasheet
    Wastewater Datasheet

  • Online UV-Vis Spectrometer | Spectro::lyser V3

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    Online UV-Vis Spectrometer  Spectro::lyser V3 Overview

    The Spectro::lyser V3 is a next-generation high-performance online water quality monitoring. With the aid of extensive research on industry needs and using the latest technology, the Spectro::lyser V3 was innovatively designed. The Spectro::lyser™ UV-Vis monitors depending on the application an individual selection of TSS, TS, turbidity, color, TOC, DOC, BOD, COD, NO3-N, NO3, chloramine, HS-, O3, CLD, Chl-a, BTX, UV254, fingerprints, spectral alarms, and temperature.

    Online UV-Vis Spectrometer Features

    • Measuring principle: UV-V is spectrometry over the total range (190-750 nm)
    • Webserver onboard - IoT enabled
    • No user software is needed to configure the probe
    • Communicates directly with your mobile device via WLAN
    • Unlimited number of parameters possible
    • 8 GB onboard memory - capacity for logging data for many years
    • Improved optical performance - revolutionary precision
    • Fast measurement interval - 10 seconds
    • Extremely power efficient - sleep mode for low energy consumption
    • Multiparameter probe with 1 mm, 5 mm, or 35 mm optical path length, ideal for wastewater, surface water, and drinking water
    • Long term stable and maintenance-free in operation
    • Factory precalibrated, local multi-point calibration possible
    • Automatic cleaning with compressed air or brush/ruck::sack

    Waste-Water Datasheet
    Drinking-Water Datasheet

  • Organic Carbon Sensor | Carbo::lyser VS3

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    Organic Carbon Sensor Carbo::lyser VS3 Overview

    The Organic Carbon Sensor Carbo::lyser VS3 is ideal for the measurement of the organic carbon load, represented by parameters like UV254, TOC, DOC, COD, or BOD, and at the same time, turbidity/solids concentration. Applicability ranges from pure water to industrial wastewater. Pre-calibrations for different types of water and applications significantly facilitate use.

    Carbo::lyser VS3  Features

    • Carbo::lyser™ V3 monitors 3 of the following parameters: TSS, Turbidity, TOC, DOC, BOD, COD, COD f, UV254, and UV254 f
    • Measuring principle: UV-Vis spectrometry over the total range (190-750 nm)
    • Webserver onboard - IoT enabled, no user software is needed to configure the probe
    • Communicates directly with your mobile device via WLAN
    • Choose exactly the parameters you want to measure – unlimited number of parameters possible
    • 8 GB onboard memory - capacity for logging data for many years
    • Improved optical performance - revolutionary precision
    • Fast measurement interval - every 10 seconds
    • Extremely power-efficient - sleep mode for low energy consumption
    • Multiparameter probe with 1 mm, 5 mm, or 35 mm optical path length, ideal for wastewater, surface water, and drinking water
    • Long term stable and maintenance-free in operation
    • Factory precalibrated, local multi-point calibration possible
    • Automatic cleaning with compressed air or brush/ruck::sack

    Drinkwater & Surface water Datasheet
    Wastewater Datasheet

  • Phosphate Analyzer | Marianna Martines

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    Phosphate Analyzer - Marianna Martines Overview

    The Phosphate Analyzer - Marianna Martines can perform continuous analysis of heavy metals,  Phosphate (P04), and many other parameters in water. Technologies employed are colorimetric (photometric) and ion-selective electrodes (ISE). Direct measurements, standard addition, and titration support the ideal measurement strategy. The robust design and high-quality parts of the Phosphate Analyzer guarantee a long lifetime and minimum maintenance efforts. Low consumption of reagents and very high reagent stability ensures person-free operation. Automated calibration and cleaning steps support this goal.

    Sources
    In weak-alkaline natural water basically only the hydrogenous phosphate ion from the three anions of the o- phosphoric acid exists in quantities of 0,1 mg/l or less, as phosphates are absorbed well in the soil. Values of higher than 0,3 mg/l phosphate in groundwater as well as in surface water are nearly exclusively human-generated by pollution (wastewater, fertilizer, cleaner,...). Clean natural water (mountain, ...) and groundwater usually contain less than 0,01 mg/l PO4, seawater has an approximate content of 0,07 mg/l, Industrial wastewater contributes only little to the phosphate existing in total. The only source is wash-waters of phosphatizes for the corrosion protection of metals (e.g. car industry). The admissible draining limit is 1 mg/l P. In potable water phosphate shall appear in traces only. Higher concentrations than 2,2 mg/l P can cause digestive troubles.

    Method
    Phospate is measured as a chelate complex between (PO4)3 ions in the water and sensitive spectrophotometric reagent dye. Change of the intensity of the visible light throughout cuvette containing formed metal complex is directly proportional to concentration.

    Phosphate Analyzer Features

    • Robust design.
    • Minimal maintenance.
    • Easy handling and long-living.
    • Highest accuracy of measurement and high precision.
    • Suitable for mission-critical applications.
    • Automated cleaning and calibration and dilution.
    • Can perform complex control tasks via analog and digital communication.